Germination is the process in which a seedling is formed from a seed or a spore to grow into an individual organism. In plant species, seeds sprout to form seedlings, and in fungal species, sporelings form from spores. Cannabis seeds follow a germination procedure wherein the dormant seed cracks and sprouts to form a seedling which pursues its normal growth life cycle.
To elaborate on the process, an embryo of a seed absorbs water and causes the expansion of cells. This is followed by an increase in respiration rate, and various metabolic processes exiting the state of dormancy. Thereafter, cells of the embryo undergo metabolism changes to burst open the seedling.
In a few plant species like corn, the leaves of a seed called the cotyledons remain underground causing hypogeal germination. In some other plant species like sunflowers, the stem or leaves of a seed grow above the ground, which forces the cotyledons to get exposed to light and become green and causes epigeal germination.
The amount of water imbibed, the depth of the soil, temperature, shoot and root formation, cotyledon unfolding, enzyme activation, and deactivation are factors which tend to influence the rate and quality of the germination process.